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In a recent Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) report for your database, you notice a high number of buffer busy waits. The database consists of locally managed tablespaces with free list managed segments.
On further investigation, you find that buffer busy waits is caused by contention on data blocks.
Which option would you consider first to decrease the wait event immediately?
A. Decreasing PCTUSED
B. Decreasing PCTFREE
C. Increasing the number of DBWN process
D. Using Automatic Segment Space Management (ASSM)
E. Increasing db_buffer_cache based on the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE recommendation
Correct Answer: D Explanation
Automatic segment space management (ASSM) is a simpler and more efficient way *
of managing space within a segment. It completely eliminates any need to specify and tune the pctused,freelists, and freelist groups storage parameters for
schema objects created in the tablespace. If any of these attributes are specified, they are ignored.
Oracle introduced Automatic Segment Storage Management (ASSM) as a *
replacement for traditional freelists management which used one-way linked-lists to manage free blocks with tables and indexes. ASSM is commonly called
“bitmap freelists” because that is how Oracle implement the internal data structures for free block management.
Buffer busy waits are most commonly associated with segment header contention onside the data buffer pool (db_cache_size, etc.).
The most common remedies for high buffer busy waits include database writer (DBWR) contention tuning, adding freelists (or ASSM), and adding missing indexes.
Examine this command:
SQL > exec DBMS_STATS.SET_TABLE_PREFS (`SH’, `CUSTOMERS’, `PUBLISH’, `false’); Which three statements are true about the effect of this command?
A. Statistics collection is not done for the CUSTOMERS table when schema stats are gathered.
B. Statistics collection is not done for the CUSTOMERS table when database stats are gathered.
C. Any existing statistics for the CUSTOMERS table are still available to the optimizer at parse time.
D. Statistics gathered on the CUSTOMERS table when schema stats are gathered are stored as pending statistics.
E. Statistics gathered on the CUSTOMERS table when database stats are gathered are stored as pending statistics.
Correct Answer: CDE Explanation
This procedure is used to set the statistics preferences of the specified table in the specified schema.
Example: Using Pending Statistics
Assume many modifications have been made to the employees table since the last time statistics were gathered. To ensure that the cost-based optimizer is still picking the best plan, statistics should be gathered once again; however, the user is concerned that new statistics will cause the optimizer to choose bad plans when the current ones are acceptable. The user can do the following:
EXEC DBMS_STATS.SET_TABLE_PREFS(‘hr’, ’employees’, ‘PUBLISH’, ‘false’);
By setting the employees tables publish preference to FALSE, any statistics gather from now on will not be automatically published. The newly gathered statistics will be marked as pending.
Examine the following impdp command to import a database over the network from a pre-12c Oracle database (source):
Which three are prerequisites for successful execution of the command?
A. The import operation must be performed by a user on the target database with the DATAPUMP_IMP_FULL_DATABASE role, and the database link must connect to a user on the source database with the DATAPUMP_EXD_FULL_DATABASE role.
B. All the user-defined tablespaces must be in read-only mode on the source database.
C. The export dump file must be created before starting the import on the target database.
D. The source and target database must be running on the same platform with the same endianness.
E. The path of data files on the target database must be the same as that on the source database.
F. The impdp operation must be performed by the same user that performed the expdp operation.
Correct Answer: ABE Explanation
1.Ensure that the exporting user at the source database has the DAT- APUMP_EXP_FULL_DATABASE role. This user must be specified when you create the data- base link.
Ensure that the importing user at the destination database has the DATAPUMP_IMP_FULL_DATABASE role.
Create and test a database link between the source and destination databases.
Run the following command, where import_user is the username for the importing user, and db_link is the name of the data base link owned by the exporting user: IMPDP import_user NETWORK_LINK=db_link FULL=Y;
Which two are true concerning a multitenant container database with three pluggable database?
A. All administration tasks must be done to a specific pluggable database.
B. The pluggable databases increase patching time.
C. The pluggable databases reduce administration effort.
D. The pluggable databases are patched together.
E. Pluggable databases are only used for database consolidation.
Correct Answer: CE Explanation
The benefits of Oracle Multitenant are brought by implementing a pure deployment choice. The following list calls out the most compelling examples.
High consolidation density. (E)
The many pluggable databases in a single multitenant container database share its memory and background processes, letting you operate many more pluggable
databases on a particular platform than you can single databases that use the old architecture. This is the same benefit that schema-based consolidation brings.
Rapid provisioning and cloning using SQL.
New paradigms for rapid patching and upgrades. (D, not B)
The investment of time and effort to patch one multitenant container database results in patching all of its many pluggable databases. To patch a single pluggable
database, you simply unplug/plug to a multitenant container database at a different Oracle Database software version.
(C, not A) Manage many databases as one.
By consolidating existing databases as pluggable databases, administrators can manage many databases as one. For example, tasks like backup and disaster
recovery are performed at the multitenant container database level.
Dynamic between pluggable database resource management. In Oracle Database 12c, Resource Manager is extended with specific functionality to control the
competition for resources between the pluggable databases within a multitenant container database.
Oracle Multitenant is a new option for Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition that helps customers reduce IT costs by simplifying consolidation, provisioning,
upgrades, and more. It is supported by a new architecture that allows a multitenant container database to hold many pluggable databases. And it fully
complements other options, including Oracle Real Application Clusters and Oracle Active Data Guard. An existing database can be simply adopted, with no
change, as a pluggable database; and no changes are needed in the other tiers of the application.
Reference: 12c Oracle Multitenant
Examine the current value for the following parameters in your database instance:
SGA_MAX_SIZE = 1024M SGA_TARGET = 700M DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE = 124M LOG_BUFFER = 200M
You issue the following command to increase the value of DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE:
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE=140M;
Which statement is true?
A. It fails because the DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE parameter cannot be changed dynamically.
B. It succeeds only if memory is available from the autotuned components if SGA.
C. It fails because an increase in DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE cannot be accommodated within SGA_TARGET.
D. It fails because an increase in DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE cannot be accommodated within SGA_MAX_SIZE.
Correct Answer: D Explanation
The SGA_TARGET parameter can be dynamically increased up to the value specified for the parameter, and it can also be reduced.
For example, suppose you have an environment with the following configuration:
SGA_MAX_SIZE = 1024M SGA_TARGET = 512M DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE = 128M In this example, the value of SGA_TARGET can be resized up to 1024M and can also be reduced until one or more of the automatically sized components reaches its minimum size. The exact value depends on environmental factors such as the number of CPUs on the system. However, the value of DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE remains fixed at all times at 128M
DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE Size of cache for 8K buffers
For example, consider this configuration:
SGA_TARGET = 512M
DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE = 128M
In this example, increasing DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE by 16 M to 144M means that the 16M is taken away from the automatically sized components. Likewise,
reducing DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE by 16M to 112M means that the 16M is given to the automatically sized components.
Which three statements are true concerning unplugging a pluggable database (PDB)?
A. The PDB must be open in read only mode.
B. The PDB must be dosed.
C. The unplugged PDB becomes a non-CDB.
D. The unplugged PDB can be plugged into the same multitenant container database (CDB)
E. The unplugged PDB can be plugged into another CDB.
F. The PDB data files are automatically removed from disk.
Correct Answer: BDE Explanation
B, not A: The PDB must be closed before unplugging it.
D: An unplugged PDB contains data dictionary tables, and some of the columns in these encode information in an endianness-sensitive way. There is no supported way to handle the conversion of such columns automatically. This means, quite simply, that an unplugged PDB cannot be moved across an endianness difference.
E (not F): To exploit the new unplug/plug paradigm for patching the Oracle version most effectively, the source and destination CDBs should share a filesystem so that the PDB’s datafiles can remain in place.
Reference: Oracle White Paper, Oracle Multitenant
Examine the following command:
CREATE TABLE (prod_id number(4),
Prod_name varchar2 (20),
Quantity_on_hand number (3) INVISIBLE);
Which three statements are true about using an invisible column in the PRODUCTS table?
A. The %ROWTYPE attribute declarations in PL/SQL to access a row will not display the invisible column in the output.
B. The DESCRIBE commands in SQL *Plus will not display the invisible column in the output.
C. Referential integrity constraint cannot be set on the invisible column.
D. The invisible column cannot be made visible and can only be marked as unused.
E. A primary key constraint can be added on the invisible column.
Correct Answer: ABE Explanation
AB: You can make individual table columns invisible. Any generic access of a table does not show the invisible columns in the table. For example, the following operations do not display invisible columns in the output:
SELECT * FROM statements in SQL
DESCRIBE commands in SQL*Plus
%ROWTYPE attribute declarations in PL/SQL
Describes in Oracle Call Interface (OCI)
Not D: You can make invisible columns visible.
You can make a column invisible during table creation or when you add a column to a table, and you can later alter the table to make the same column visible.
Reference: Understand Invisible Columns
You wish to enable an audit policy for all database users, except SYS, SYSTEM, and SCOTT.
You issue the following statements:
SQL> AUDIT POLICY ORA_DATABASE_PARAMETER EXCEPT SYS; SQL> AUDIT POLICY ORA_DATABASE_PARAMETER EXCEPT SYSTEM; SQL> AUDIT POLICY ORA_DATABASE_PARAMETER EXCEPT SCOTT;
For which database users is the audit policy now active?
A. All users except SYS
B. All users except SCOTT
C. All users except sys and SCOTT
D. All users except sys, system, and SCOTT Correct Answer: B
If you run multiple AUDIT statements on the same unified audit policy but specify different EXCEPT users, then Oracle Database uses the last exception user list, not any of the users from the preceding lists. This means the effect of the earlier AUDIT POLICY … EXCEPT statements are overridden by the latest AUDIT POLICY … EXCEPT statement.
The ORA_DATABASE_PARAMETER policy audits commonly used Oracle Database parameter settings. By default, this policy is not enabled.
You can use the keyword ALL to audit all actions. The following example shows how to audit all actions on the HR.EMPLOYEES table, except actions by user pmulligan.
Example Auditing All Actions on a Table CREATE AUDIT POLICY all_actions_on_hr_emp_pol ACTIONS ALL ON HR.EMPLOYEES;
AUDIT POLICY all_actions_on_hr_emp_pol EXCEPT pmulligan;
Reference: Oracle Database Security Guide 12c, About Enabling Unified Audit Policies
On your Oracle 12c database, you invoked SQL *Loader to load data into the EMPLOYEES table in the HR schema by issuing the following command:
$> sqlldr hr/[email protected] table=employees
Which two statements are true regarding the command?
A. It succeeds with default settings if the EMPLOYEES table belonging to HR is already defined in the database.
B. It fails because no SQL *Loader data file location is specified.
C. It fails if the HR user does not have the CREATE ANY DIRECTORY privilege.
D. It fails because no SQL *Loader control file location is specified.
Correct Answer: AC Explanation Explanation/Reference:
* SQL*Loader is invoked when you specify the sqlldr command and, optionally, parameters that establish session characteristics.
After implementing full Oracle Data Redaction, you change the default value for the NUMBER data type as follows:
After changing the value, you notice that FULL redaction continues to redact numeric data with zero.
What must you do to activate the new default value for numeric full redaction?
A. Re-enable redaction policies that use FULL data redaction.
B. Re-create redaction policies that use FULL data redaction.
C. Re-connect the sessions that access objects with redaction policies defined on them.
D. Flush the shared pool.
E. Restart the database instance.
Correct Answer: E Explanation
About Altering the Default Full Data Redaction Value You can alter the default displayed values for full Data Redaction polices. By default, 0 is the redacted value when Oracle Database performs full redaction (DBMS_REDACT.FULL) on a column of the NUMBER data type. If you want to change it to another value (for example, 7), then you can run the DBMS_REDACT.UPDATE_FULL_REDACTION_VALUES procedure to modify this value. The modification applies to all of the Data Redaction policies in the current database instance. After you modify a value, you must restart the database for it to take effect.
The DBMS_REDACT package provides an interface to Oracle Data Redaction, which enables you to mask (redact) data that is returned from queries issued by low-privileged users or an application.
This procedure modifies the default displayed values for a Data Redaction policy for full redaction.
After you create the Data Redaction policy, it is automatically enabled and ready to redact data.
Oracle Data Redaction enables you to mask (redact) data that is returned from queries issued by low-privileged users or applications. You can redact column data by using one of the following methods:
/ Full redaction. / Partial redaction. / Regular expressions. / Random redaction. / No redaction.
Reference: Oracle Database Advanced Security Guide 12c, About Altering the Default Full Data Redaction Value
You must track all transactions that modify certain tables in the sales schema for at least three years.
Automatic undo management is enabled for the database with a retention of one day.
Which two must you do to track the transactions?
A. Enable supplemental logging for the database.
B. Specify undo retention guarantee for the database.
C. Create a Flashback Data Archive in the tablespace where the tables are stored.
D. Create a Flashback Data Archive in any suitable tablespace.
E. Enable Flashback Data Archiving for the tables that require tracking. Correct Answer: DE
E: By default, flashback archiving is disabled for any table. You can enable flashback archiving for a table if you have the FLASHBACK ARCHIVE object privilege on the Flashback Data Archive that you want to use for that table.
D: Creating a Flashback Data Archive / Create a Flashback Data Archive with the CREATE FLASHBACK ARCHIVE statement, specifying the following: Name of the Flashback Data Archive Name of the first tablespace of the Flashback Data Archive (Optional) Maximum amount of space that the Flashback Data Archive can use in the first tablespace / Create a Flashback Data Archive named fla2 that uses tablespace tbs2, whose data will be retained for two years: CREATE FLASHBACK ARCHIVE fla2 TABLESPACE tbs2 RETENTION 2 YEAR;
Your are the DBA supporting an Oracle 11g Release 2 database and wish to move a table containing several DATE, CHAR, VARCHAR2, and NUMBER data
types, and the table’s indexes, to another tablespace.
The table does not have a primary key and is used by an OLTP application.
Which technique will move the table and indexes while maintaining the highest level of availability to the application?
A. Oracle Data Pump.
B. An ALTER TABLE MOVE to move the table and ALTER INDEX REBUILD to move the indexes.
C. An ALTER TABLE MOVE to move the table and ALTER INDEX REBUILD ONLINE to move the indexes.
D. Online Table Redefinition.
E. Edition-Based Table Redefinition. Correct Answer: D
Oracle Database provides a mechanism to make table structure modifications without significantly affecting the availability of the table. The mechanism is called online table redefinition. Redefining tables online provides a substantial increase in availability compared to traditional methods of redefining tables.
To redefine a table online:
Choose the redefinition method: by key or by rowid
By key–Select a primary key or pseudo-primary key to use for the redefinition. Pseudo- primary keys are unique keys with all component columns having NOT NULL constraints. For this method, the versions of the tables before and after redefinition should have the same primary key columns. This is the preferred and default method of redefinition.
By rowid–Use this method if no key is available. In this method, a hidden column named M_ROW$$ is added to the post-redefined version of the table. It is recommended that this column be dropped or marked as unused after the redefinition is complete. If COMPATIBLE is set to 10.2.0 or higher, the final phase of redefinition automatically sets this column unused. You can then use the ALTER TABLE … DROP UNUSED COLUMNS statement to drop it.
You cannot use this method on index-organized tables. Note:
When you rebuild an index, you use an existing index as the data source. Creating an index in this manner enables you to change storage characteristics or move to a new tablespace. Rebuilding an index based on an existing data source removes intra-block fragmentation. Compared to dropping the index and using the CREATE INDEX statement, re-creating an existing index offers better performance.
Not E: Edition-based redefinition enables you to upgrade the database component of an application while it is in use, thereby minimizing or eliminating down time.
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